Biological systematics offers two fundamentally different systems for classification:
- Linnean systematics, and
The difference between the systems is simply that Linnean systematics is consistent, whereas cladistics is inconsistent.
However, this difference is fairly difficult to understand, since the fact that classification ultimately is paradoxically contradictory (see Russell’s paradox) means that Linnean classification is fundamentally ambiguous by consistently bypassing this paradoxical contradiction, whereas cladistics instead simply is paradoxically contradictory.
The difficulty to understand this difference is thus due to that it means that none of the systems is both consistent and unambiguous (simply because classification ultimately is paradoxically contradictory), but instead either ambiguous or paradoxically contradictory. A biological systematization that is both consistent and unambiguous is actually impossible to reach, since classification ultimately is paradoxically contradictory (ie, kinds are definitely not real).