# On the inconsistent foundation for “cladistics” (ie, the distinction of ancestors and descendants)

Cladistics rests on a distinction of “ancestors” and “descendants”. This distinction is, however,  problematic. The problem is that it implies that every descendant also is an ancestor, and thus also that every ancestor is a descendant, which actually contradicts the distinction itself. (Ie, if every descendant also is an ancestor, and every ancestor also is a descendant, then the distinction distinguishes nothing)

It means that cladistics is fundamentally inconsistent. And,  since the foundation for cladistics also is the foundation for race biology, that also race biology is fundamentally inconsistent.

It is thus fairly easy to show that race biology (and thus also cladistics) is fundamentally inconsistent (luckily).

### 2 responses to “On the inconsistent foundation for “cladistics” (ie, the distinction of ancestors and descendants)”

1. Drone

Arithmetic rests on a distinction of “preceding” and “successive” numbers. This distinction is, however, problematic. The problem is that it implies that every preceding number also is a successive number, and thus also that every successive number is a precedent number, which actually contradicts the distinction itself. (Ie, if every preceding also is a successive, and every successive also is a preceding, then the distinction distinguishes nothing)

It means that the order of integer numbers is fundamentally inconsistent.

2. menvall

Yes sir! This is the fundamental problem for cladistics (belief in “a tree of life”) as well for belief in its widest sense, that is, including in rationality. Belief is simply fundamentally inconsistent (ie, independently of what you believe in).

Mathematics have today solved this problem by acknowledging two kinds of infinity: countable and uncountable (whereof integers are countably infinite), and inventing Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, and has thereby succeeded to rotate around the non-existing (inconsistent) middle (by assuming that it exists!), and has thus closed the gap between infinite and finite mathematics, and between mathematics and logic. Today, mathematics and logic do thus form a single consistent system.

In the midst of this development of human thinking, some biologists did in the 70s pick up old race biology thinking formulated by the nazi Willi Hennig, on the contrary claiming that it has got matters up-side-down. Instead, they claimed that the (inconsistent) middle indeed can be found (in the form of a tree of life). This claim is difficult to encounter, since it is a necessary assumption to bypass this (inconsistent) middle, but this assumption also acknowledges that it is inconsistent, ie, do not exist. It is like negative numbers, like -3 apples. These apples do not exist, but are rather bridges to things that do exist,

Cladistics is thus a belief that dream can be fused with reality consistently, or in a wider sense, that dream can come true.