Classification is fundamentally ambiguous by dividing every single class into several classes.
It means first that there are fundamentally two different kinds of classification: plain and orthogonal: plain simply dividing every class into two classes (eg, “cladification” as in cladistics), and orthogonal dividing classes into categories (eg, Linnean systematics), and secondly that plain ultimately leads to paradoxical contradiction (ie, Russell’s paradox), whereas orthogonal lacks an ultimate end point, because the only two end points there are in a fundamentally ambiguous system is paradox (ie, conflation of the ambiguity) and none (ie, ambiguity). There is no other end point that consistent logical reasoning can lead us to.
This fact thus means that we can’t reach a single unambiguous truth about reality, like the hypothetical cladistic “tree of life” and particle physics’ “standard model”, independently of the state of affairs, because we can’t classify reality unambiguously.
This fact is actually the opposite to what realists, like cladists and particle physicists, believe, since they believe that we do not classify, but instead find classes. In their belief, they’re thus predestined to end up in paradox, which cladists call “the tree of life” and particle physicists call “Higgs particle”. These kinds of things are simply what realists, like cladists and particle physicists, arrive to when they reason logically, and which they thus have to believe actually exists. They have no possibility to understand that such things actually are mind ghosts resulting from an erroneous belief, because they don’t understand that they believe.