If we want to classify the objects in a dichotomously branching process, there are only two possibilities. We can only either:
1. classify it consistently in an orthogonal system, like the Linnean system, when there are several different solutions, or
2. classify it inconsistently in a “flat” classification, like cladistics, when there is no consistent solution.
We can thus only classify the process either ambiguously or inconsistently.
However, if we do not understand this fact, but instead believe we can classify the process both consistently and unambiguously, like cladists do, then we will enter an indefinite orthogonal carousel searching for something that is not to be found (as also already Charles Darwin concluded). This something is actually the phenomenon Bertrand Russell revealed and became known as Russell’s paradox.
This fact also means that we can’t find a single truth about reality, since we can’t find a single consistent and unambiguous classification of it. Reality is so-to-speak hidden behind its orthogonal dual nature (also for particle physicists. The so-called “Higgs particle” is just another abstract manifestation of Russell’s paradox, ie, a mind-ghost like God).